First some background reading from the bibliography I'll have to read eventually:

- John Hughes. Generalising monads to arrows. Science of Computer Programming, 37:67-111, May 2000
- Ross Paterson. A Notation for Arrow-based Libraries. In ICFP'01: International Conference on Functional Programming, pages 229-240, Firenze, Italy, 2001
- Zhanyong Wan. Functional Reactive Programming for Real-Time Embedded Systems. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, Yale University, December 2002
- Zhanyong Wan, Walid Taha, and Paul Hudak. Real-time FRP. In Proceedings of Sixth ACM SIGPLAN '00 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI), pages 242-252, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 2000. ACM, ACM Press.
- Zhanyong Wan, Walid Taha, and Paul Hudak. Event-driven FRP. In Proceedings of Fourth International Symposium on Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages. ACM, Jan 2002

Naturally when you are using FRP the core concept is that of the *signal*. So we define signal to have the type
`Signal a = Time -> a`

, ie a function of Time returning a value of type 'a'; s(t). The robot used throughout the paper is a simple differential drive with a handful of basic sensors. So given two signals vr(t) -> `vr::Signal Double`

and vl(t)`vl::Signal Double`

which are the velocities of the right and left wheels respectively we can write an reactive program for calculating the robots position:

x = (1 / 2) * integral ((vr + vl) * sin theta) y = (1 / 2) * integral ((vr + vl) * cos theta) theta = (1 / l) * integral (vr - vl)Of course the nice thing about this program is that it is a direct transliteration of the physics equations governing the motion of such a robot! This is why FRP is important.

Such programs are clear, consise, correct, and unfortunately completely unworkable in the general case. The problem is that while in the small (with simple toy examples) you couldn't get better than this, larger programs tend to lead to opaque space and time management with the resultant space and time leaks. The focus on this paper is how to retain most of the legibility and good domain match of FRP while preventing leaks. The FRP DSL developed in this paper is called Yampa, and it solves the leak problem by disallowing signals as first class values. Instead signals are manipulated indirectly via set of combinators called *signal transformers* or *signal functions*.

SF a b = Signal a -> Signal bThis of course is very similar to the Haskell IO or State monads, and reminisent of Hutton's Monadic Parser Combinators. On the other hand, as presaged by the subject, the authors use Arrows rather than Monads as the basis for their combinator library.

A good analogy for this idea is a state or IO monad, where the state is hidden, and a program consists of a linear sequencing of actions that are eventually run by an interpreter or the operating system. But in fact arrows are more general than monads, and in particular the composition of signal functions does not have to be completely linearSpecifically Arrow contains a fixedpoint combinator

`loop`

which provides access to recursion.
The basic combinators include.

- lift function:
`arr :: ( a -> b ) -> SF a b`

- Takes a normal function from type 'a' to 'b', and returns a signal-function/transformer that will convert a signal of type 'Signal a' to 'Signal b'.
- compose:
`(>>>) :: SF a b -> SF b c -> SF a c`

- Takes two signal functions and returns the composition of them
- tuping:
`(&&&) :: SF a b -> SF a c -> SF a (b, c)`

- This permits you to take one signal and apply two functions to it similtaniously producing two signals both independently derived from the input. And of course, once you have tupled outputs....
- tuple-transform:
`(***) :: SF a b -> SF c d -> SF (a c) (b d)`

- Take two signal functions and returns a transformer that applies them to the respective signals in a tupled signal.

Some standard combinators provided:
```
```

- identity :: SF a a
- constant :: b -> SF a b
- time :: SF a Time

```
```

```
```

Also the standard arrow combinators (remember, when thinking of FRP, just substitute 'SF' for 'a' in the type-sigs):
```
```
- arr :: Arrow a => (b -> c) -> a b c
- arr2 :: Arrow a => (b -> c -> d) -> a (b, c) d
- (>>>) :: Arrow a => a b c -> a c d -> a b d
- (<<<) :: Arrow a => a c d -> a b c -> a b d
- first :: Arrow a => a b c -> a (b, d) (c, d)
- second :: Arrow a => a b c -> a (d, b) (d, c)
- (***) :: Arrow a => a b c -> a b' c' ->a (b, b') (c, c')
- (&&&) :: Arrow a => a b c -> a b c' -> a b (c, c')
- loop :: Arrow a => a (b, d) (c, d) -> a b c

Note that with loop, 'd' provides a channel for feedback, and hence recursion. Notice also the strong streamish feel to the api. I would like to see a Arrow based treatment of the unix-pipe concept. I think it could result in a powerful scripting framework. Also worth noting that some signal functions are stateful (integral is one example), and as such cannot be defined without access to the underlying signals (forbidden). Hence they must either be pre-defined, or defined as a combination of pre-defined stateful signal functions.
So now convert the original FRP expression for x(t) to raw arrow-form:

x = (1/2) * integral ((vr + vl) * cos theta) given: vrSF :: SF RobotInput Velocity (SF that extracts vr from a RobotInput) and vlSF :: SF RobotInput Velocity (SF that extracts vl from a RobotInput) and thetaSF :: SF RobotInput Angle xSF :: SF RobotInput Distance -- Signal Function transforming RobotInput -> Distance xSF = (((vrSF && vlSF) >>> arr2 (+)) &&& (thetaSF >>> arr cos)) >>> arr2 (*) >>> integral >>> arr (/2) or slightly more legible: xSF = let v = (vrSF &&& vlSF) >>> arr2 (+) t = thetaSF >>> arr cos in (v &&& t) >>> arr2 (*) >>> integral >>> arr (/2) which isn't all that much better.So what we have gained above is the ability to mediate access to signals behind a reasonably safe, yet complete abstraction. However the loss in clarity is striking. Fortunately there is a proposed arrow-syntax that is similar to Haskell's monadic do-syntax.

xSF' :: SF RobotInput Distance xSF' = proc inp -> do vr <- vrSF -< inp vl <- vlSF -< inp theta <- thetaSF -< inp i <- integral -< (vr + vl) * cos theta returnA -< (i / 2)Which while not as nice as the original FRP, has the triple advantage of being declarative, legible, and safe!

It is important to note that the arrow syntax allows one to get a handle on a signal'sAlthough I can't reproduce it here, Fig 2 is dramatic. The correspondance between arrow-based signal-functions, and the signal-flow-diagrams shown is striking, and exciting. I have been excited about the potential of FRP to liberate UI programming from the tyranny of the state-machine; Fig 2 amazed at the clarity available. I am now, more than ever, convinced that I am on the right track.values(orsamples), butnoton the signals themselves. In other words, first recalling that a signal function`SF a`

can be thought of as a type`Signal a -> Signal b`

, which in turn can be thought of as type`(Time -> a) -> (Time -> b)`

, the syntax allows getting a handle on values of type`a`

and`b`

, but not on values of type`Time -> a`

or`Time -> b`

.

Events diverge from Signals slightly in that while they are also temporal values, event's don't so much change from one value to another over time, as simply not exist between 'impulses' (in the signal processing sense). In fact their is an isomorphism between impulse-streams vs. continuous-signals and event-streams vs. signals. In previous papers the authors accepted this distinction as signifigant, and the two were treated seperately. However by noting an isomorphism between `Event a`

and `Maybe a`

they are able to define a signal of type `Signal (Event b)`

ie. an *event stream*, which becomes a signal that can be thought of as alternating between `Nothing`

and `Just a`

. *A signal function of type SF a (Event b) generates an event stream, and is called an *event source.

There are a number of combinators for use with event-streams. I'm just going to list them with minimal discussion, for more than that see the paper.

switch, dSwitch :: SF a (b, Event c) -> (c -> SF a b) -> SF a b -- switch or delayed-switch. Note the function from the event payload to a new SF a b. rSwitch, drSwitch :: SF a b -> SF (a, Event (SF a b)) b -- note event is defined to carry an SF (possibly inserted by tag), this allows for recurring switch. tag :: Event a -> b -> Event b mergeBy :: (a -> a -> a) -> Event a -> Event a -> Event a lMerge, rMerge :: Event a -> Event a -> Event a -- Different ways of handing event collision. -- Useful event-sources: edge :: SF Bool (Event ()) -- Obtain an edge trigged event-stream from a (Signal Boolean) never :: SF a (Event b) now :: b -> SF a (Event b) after :: Time -> b -> SF a (Event b) repeatably :: Time -> b -> SF a (Event b) -- Useful event-stream transform back to signal space: hold :: a -> SF (Event a) a accum :: a -> SF (Event (a -> a)) (Event a) accumHold :: a -> SF (Event (a -> a)) a accumHold init = accum init >>> hold init

Finally just to show how it goes together, the paper implements a few robot controllers. First you implement your robot's controller as a signal function from RobotInput to RobotOutput. So a FRP mapping from the robots sensor-signals to signals which the signal-function-processor will apply to the robot's actuators. This controller is actually parametised by the robots properties, but that isn't surprising:

type RobotController = RobotProperties -> SF RobotInput RobotOutput.Finally the FRP engine is implemented as a function from a controller to IO(). In the case of the RobotSimulator implemented for the paper, the engine also takes a second controller and a world description.

runSim :: Maybe WorldTemplate -> RobotController -> RobotController -> IO ()Of course, returning the IO monad, this can be trivially instansated as as Haskell main function.

All in all a fascinating paper --- well worth the time to read.

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